Any act which is deemed as an offence by any law is an offence. Any act which causes a violation of the rights of others or causes harm to others and is so dangerous that also affects the society at large is designated as offence. Section 2(n) of CrPC defines an offence as: “Offence” means any act or omission made punishable by any law for the time being in force and includes any act in respect of which a complaint may be made under section 20 of the Cattle-trespass Act, 1871.
The Criminal Procedure Code lays (CrPC) the rules for conduct of proceedings against any person who has committed an offence under any Criminal law, whether it is I.P.C or other Criminal law.
Depending on the nature and gravity of an offence they can be classified under any of the following heads:
Bail is an instrument which is used to ensure the presence of an accused whenever required by the court. CrPC does not define the term Bail, but essentially, Bail is an agreement in which a person makes a written undertaking to the court to appear before it whenever required and comply with any conditions set out in the agreement. He/she also assures to forfeit a specified sum of money if the person fails to comply with any terms and conditions of the agreement.
In case of bailable offence, the grant of bail is a matter of right. It may be either given by a police officer who is having the custody of Accused or by the court. The accused may be released on bail, on executing a “bail bond”, with or without furnishing sureties.
The “Bail Bond” may contain certain terms and conditions, such as:
The accused will not leave the territorial jurisdiction of the state without the permission of the court or police officer. The Accused shall give his presence before police officer every time, he is required to do so. The Accused will not tamper with any evidence whatsoever, considered by police in the investigation.
The court is empowered to refuse bail to an accused person even if the offence is bailable, where the person granted bail fails to comply with the conditions of the bail bond.
A non-bailable offence is one in which the grant of Bail is not a matter of right. Here the Accused will have to apply to the court, and it will be the discretion of the court to grant Bail or not.
The court may generally refuse the Bail, if:
“Bail Bond” has not been duly executed, or if the offence committed is one, which imposes punishment of death or Life imprisonment, such as “Murder ” or “Rape” or the accused has attempted to abscond, and his credentials are doubtful.
The application for bail shall be filed before the Magistrate, who is conducting the trial. The application after being filed is usually listed on the next day. On such day, the application will be heard, and the police shall also present the accused in court. The magistrate may pass such orders, as he thinks fit.