Category Archive Criminal Law Guides and Articles

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Indian Penal Code 1860 (IPC) || Cheating and dishonestly inducing delivery of property

Whoever cheats and thereby dishonestly induces the person de­ceived to deliver any property to any person, or to make, alter or destroy the whole or any part of a valuable security, or anything which is signed or sealed, and which is capable of being converted into a valuable security, shall be punished with i

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Section 377 Indian Penal Code 1860 (IPC) Unnatural offences

Whoever voluntarily has carnal inter­course against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with 1[imprisonment for life], or with impris­onment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation.—Penetration is sufficient to constitute the carnal intercourse necessary to the offence described in this section.

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Indian Penal Code 1860 (IPC) || Punishment for repeat offenders

Whoever has been previously convicted of an offence punishable under section 376 or section 376A or section 3760 and is subsequently convicted of an offence punishable under any of the said sections shall be punished with imprisonment for life which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, or with death.

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Section 376D Indian Penal Code 1860 (IPC) Gang Rape

Where a woman is raped by one or more persons constituting a group or acting in furtherance of a common intention, each of those persons shall be deemed to have committed the offence of rape and shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than twenty years, but which may extend to life which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and with fine:

Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses and rehabilitation of the victim:

Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim.

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Section 376C Indian Penal Code 1860 (IPC) Sexual intercourse by person in authority

Whoever, being—

a. in a position of authority or in a feduciary relationship; or

b. a public servant; or

c. superintendent or manager of a jail, remand home or other place of custody established by or under any law for the time being in force, or a women’s or children’s institution; or

d. on the management of a hospital or being on the staff of a hospital, abuses such position or 6duciary relationship to induce or seduce any woman either in his custody or under his charge or present in the premises to have sexual intercourse with him, such sexual intercourse not amounting to the offence of rape, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than 6ve years, but which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation l.—In this section, “sexual intercourse” shall mean any of the acts mentioned in clauses (a) to (d) of section 375.

Explanation 2. —For the purposes of this section, Explanation I to section 375 shall also be applicable.

Explanation 3.—”Superintendent”, in relation to a jail, remand home or other place of custody or a women’s or children’s institution, includes a person holding any other office in such jail, remand home, place or institution by virtue of which such person can exercise any authority or control over its inmates.

Explanation 4.—The expressions “hospital” and “women’s or children’s institution” shall respectively have the same meaning as in Explanation to sub-section (2) of section 376.

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Section 376B Indian Penal Code 1860 (IPC) || Sexual intercourse by husband upon his wife during separation.

Whoever has sexual intercourse with his own wife, who is living separately, whether under a decree of separation or otherwise, without her consent, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than two years but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation.—In this section, “sexual intercourse” shall mean any of the acts mentioned in clauses (a) to (d) of section 375.

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Indian Penal Code 1860 (IPC) || Punishment for causing death or resulting in persistent vegetative state.

Whoever, commits an offence punishable under sub-section (l) or sub¬section (2) of section 376 and in the course of such commission inflicts an injury which causes the death of the woman or causes the woman to be in a persistent vegetative state, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than twenty years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, or with death.

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Section 376 Indian Penal Code 1860 (IPC) Punishment for Rape

1. Whoever, except in the cases provided for in sub-section (2), commits rape, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not he less than seven years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

2. Whoever,—

a. being a police officer, commits rape—

                      i. within the limits of the police station to which such police officer is appointed; or

                     ii. in the premises of any station house; or

                    iii. on a woman in such police officer’s custody or in the custody of a police officer subordinate to such police officer; or

b. being a public servant, commits rape on a woman in such public servant’s custody or in the custody of a public servant subordinate to such public servant; or

c. being a member of the armed forces deployed in an area by the Central or a State Government commits rape in such area; or

d. being on the management or on the staff of a jail, remand home or other place of custody established by or under any law for the time being in force or of a women’s or children’s institution, commits rape on any inmate of such jail, remand home, place or institution; or

e. being on the management or on the staff of a hospital, commits rape on a woman in that hospital; or

f. being a relative, guardian or teacher of, or a person in a position of trust or authority towards the woman, commits rape on such woman; or

g. commits rape during communal or sectarian violence; or

h. commits rape on a woman knowing her to be pregnant; or

i. commits rape on a woman when she is under sixteen years of age; or

j. commits rape, on a woman incapable of giving consent; or

k. being in a position of control or dominance over a woman, commits rape on such woman; or

l. commits rape on a woman suffering from mental or physical disability; or

m. while committing rape causes grievous bodily harm or maims or disfigures or endangers the life of a woman; or

n. commits rape repeatedly on the same woman, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this sub-section,—

a. “armed forces” means the naval, military and air forces and includes any member of the Armed Forces constituted under any Jaw for the time being in force, including the paramilitary forces and any auxiliary forces that are under the control of the Central Government!, or the State Government;

b. “hospital” means the precincts of the hospital and includes the precincts of any institution for the reception and treatment of persons during convalescence or of persons requiring medical attention or rehabilitation;

c. “police officer” shall have the same meaning as assigned to the expression “police” under the Police Act, 1861;

d. “women’s or children’s institution” means an institution, whether called an orphanage or a home for neglected women or children or a widow’s home or an institution called by any other name, which is established and maintained for the reception and care of women or children.

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Section 375 Indian Penal Code 1860 (IPC) Definition of Rape

A man is said to commit “rape” if he –

  • penetrates his penis, to any extent, into the vagina, mouth, urethra or anus of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person; or
  • inserts, to any extent, any object or a part of the body, not being the penis, into the vagina, the urethra or anus of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person; or
  • manipulates any part of the body of a woman so as to cause penetration into the vagina, urethra, anus or any ~ of body of such woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person; or
  • applies his mouth to the vagina, anus, urethra of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person, under the circumstances falling under any of the following seven descriptions:—
  1. Against her will.
  2. Without her consent.
  3. With her consent, when her consent has been obtained by putting her or any person in whom she is interested, in fear of death or of hurt.
  4. With her consent, when the man knows that he is not her husband and that her consent is given because she believes that he is another man to whom she is or believes herself to be lawfully married.
  5. With her consent when, at the time of giving such consent, by reason of unsoundness of mind or intoxication or the administration by him personally or through another of any stupefying or unwholesome Substance, she is unable to understand the nature and consequences of that to which she gives consent.
  6. With or without her consent, when she is under eighteen years of age.
  7. When she is unable to communicate consent.


Explanation I.—For the purposes of this section, “vagina” shall also include labia majora.

Explanation 2.—Consent means an unequivocal voluntary agreement when the woman by words, gestures or any form of verbal or non-verbal communication, communicates the willingness to participate in the specific sexual act:


Provided that a woman who does not physically resist to the act of penetration shall not by the reason only of that fact, be regarded as consenting to the sexual activity.

Exception I.—A medical procedure or intervention shall not constitute rape.

Exception 2.—Sexual intercourse or sexual acts by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under fifteen years of age, is not rape.’.

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Section 354D Indian Penal Code 1860 (IPC) Stalking

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Stalking

1. Any man who-

  1. follows a woman and contacts, or attempts to contact such woman to foster personal interaction repeatedly despite a clear indication of disinterest by such woman; or
  2. monitors the use by a woman of the internet, email or any other form of electronic communication,commits the offence of stalking;

Provided that such conduct shall not amount to stalking if the man who pursued it proves that—

  1. it was pursued for the purpose of preventing or detecting crime and the man accused of stalking had been entrusted with the responsibility of prevention and detection of crime by the State; or
  2. it was pursued under any law or to comply with any condition or requirement imposed by any person under any law; or
  3. in the particular circumstances such conduct was reasonable and justified.

2. Any man who-

commits the offence of stalking shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine; and be punished on a second or subsequent conviction, with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine.